Home Nā Buke Weliwelifiction Mahina Haʻaheo Horror: 'Dracula' & ka Hōʻailona Undeniable o Bram Stoker

Mahina Haʻaheo Horror: 'Dracula' & ka Hōʻailona Undeniable o Bram Stoker

by Waylon Ioredane
1,483 manao
ʻO Bram Stoker Dracula

Aia kekahi mau manawa i ka Pride Month ma iHorror ʻike wau e nānā ʻole ka poʻe iaʻu. A laila aia kekahi mau manawa ke batten au i lalo o ka hatches a mākaukau no ka backdraft. Ke kikokiko nei au i ka poʻo inoa o kēia ʻatikala e pili ana ʻO Dracula–ʻOkahi o kaʻu mau puke punahele punahele o nā manawa āpau – ʻe, e ʻōlelo wale nā ​​hiʻohiʻona o Kurt Russell lāua ʻo Billy Baldwin e hulahula nei i loko o koʻu poʻo.

No laila, hele aku nei…

Ma kahi o 125 mau makahiki i hala ʻO Dracula i paʻi mua ʻia, ua aʻo nui mākou e pili ana iā mākou iho a e pili ana i ke kanaka nāna i kākau paha ka puke moʻolelo vampire kaulana loa o nā manawa āpau, a ʻo ka ʻoiaʻiʻo, he kāne ʻo Bram Stoker i lilo i ka nui o kona ola makua i pīhoihoi ʻia me nā kāne ʻē aʻe. .

Hōʻike A: Walt Whitman

I ka piha ʻana iā ia he iwakāluakumamāhā ona mau makahiki, ua haku ʻo Stoker ʻōpio i kekahi o nā leka makemake nui aʻu e heluhelu ai i ka haku mele ʻAmelika ʻo Walt Whitman. Ua hoʻomaka ʻo ia e like me kēia:

Inā ʻo ʻoe ke kāne lawe wau iā ʻoe e makemake ʻoe e kiʻi i kēia leka. Inā ʻaʻole ʻoe ʻaʻohe oʻu manaʻo inā makemake ʻoe iā ia ʻaʻole paha a noi wale ʻoe e waiho ʻoe i loko o ke ahi me ka heluhelu ʻole ʻana i kahi mamao loa. Akā manaʻoʻiʻo wau e makemake ʻoe ia. ʻAʻole au i manaʻo aia kahi kāne e noho nei, ʻo ʻoe ma luna o ka prejudices o ka papa o nā kāne noʻonoʻo liʻiliʻi, ʻaʻole makemake e kiʻi i kahi leka mai kahi ʻōpio, kahi malihini, ma ka honua holoʻokoʻa - kahi kāne ke noho nei i kahi lewa i kolohe i ka ʻoiaʻiʻo āu e hīmeni ai a me kāu ʻano o ke mele ʻana iā lākou.

E hoʻomau ʻo Stoker e kamaʻilio e pili ana i kona makemake e kamaʻilio me Whitman e like me ka hana a nā mea haku mele, e kapa ana iā ia he "haku," a e ʻōlelo ana ua lili a ʻano makaʻu hoʻi ʻo ia i ka manuahi a ka mea kākau mua i alakaʻi ai i kona ola. A i ka hopena hoʻopau ʻo ia i kēia ala:

He mea momona ia no ke kāne olakino ikaika me ka maka o ka wahine a me nā makemake o kahi keiki e manaʻo hiki iā ia ke kamaʻilio me kahi kāne hiki ke lilo inā makemake ʻo ia i ka makuakāne, a me ke kaikaina a me ka wahine i kona ʻuhane. Manaʻo wau ʻaʻole ʻoe e ʻakaʻaka, Walt Whitman, ʻaʻole hoʻi e hoʻowahāwahā iaʻu, akā i nā hanana āpau ke hoʻomaikaʻi aku nei wau iā ʻoe no nā aloha a me nā minamina āu i hāʻawi mai ai iaʻu i ka like me kaʻu ʻano.

ʻAʻole ia he lele o ka manaʻo e noʻonoʻo i ka manaʻo o Stoker e "kaʻu ʻano." ʻOiai naʻe, ʻaʻole hiki iā ia ke lawe iā ia iho e ʻōlelo i nā huaʻōlelo, e hulahula ana iā lākou ma kahi o.

Hiki iā ʻoe ke heluhelu i nā leka piha a me ke kūkā hou aʻe e KA LANI MA. Ua hana ʻo Whitman, i ka ʻoiaʻiʻo, pane i ke kanaka ʻōpio, a hoʻomaka i kahi leka e holo mau ana i mau makahiki i kekahi ʻano a i ʻole. ʻO Stoker, ua haʻi aku ʻo ia i kāna hoalauna ʻo Horace Traubel:

He ʻōpio ʻōpio ʻo ia. ʻAe i ke kuni ʻana i ka episetole a i ʻole ʻaʻole paha - ʻaʻole i manaʻo ʻia e hana iki i kekahi mea: he aha kaʻu e nānā ai inā pili a pili ʻole paha ia? ua hou ʻo ia, breezy, ʻIlani: ʻo ia ke kumukūʻai i uku ʻia no ke komo ʻana - a lawa: ua hoʻokipa ʻia ʻo ia!

I mau makahiki ma hope mai, loaʻa iā Stoker ka manawa kūpono e hui me kāna kiʻi i nā manawa he nui. No Whitman, ua kākau ʻo ia:

Ua loaʻa iaʻu nā mea āpau aʻu i moeʻuhane ai, a i makemake ai paha iā ia: ka manaʻo nui, ke ākea, ke ahonui i ke kekelē hope loa; komo kino i ke aloha; ka hoʻomaopopo ʻana me kahi ʻike i ʻike ʻia ma mua o ke kanaka.

Exhibit B: ʻO Sir Henry Irving

E hoʻokomo i ka mana nui ʻelua i ko Stoker ola.

I ka makahiki 1878, ua hoʻolimalima ʻia ʻo Stoker ma ke ʻano he hui a me ka luna ʻoihana no ka Lyceum Theatre nona a hoʻokele ʻia e Ireland's - a e ʻōlelo kekahi kekahi ʻo ka mea hana keaka kaulana loa o ka honua, ʻo Sir Henry Irving. ʻO kahi kanaka wiwo ʻole, ʻoi aku ka nui ma mua o ke kanaka ola nāna i koi i ka manaʻo o ka poʻe e hoʻopuni iā ​​ia, ʻaʻole ia he manawa ma mua o ia, lawe pū i kahi wahi kiʻekiʻe i ko Stoker ola. Ua hoʻolauna ʻo ia iā Stoker i loko o ke kaiāulu o Ladana, a hoʻokau iā ia i kahi kūlana e hui aku ai i nā mea kākau e like me Sir Arthur Conan Doyle.

ʻOiai aia kekahi kānalua no kahi a ka mea kākau i lawe ai i kāna mea i hoʻouluulu ai no ka moʻolelo o Dracula – Vlad Tepes a i ʻole ka moʻolelo vampire Irelani ʻo Abhartach – ua ʻae ʻae ʻia e ka mea kākau i ka wehewehe kino o ke ʻano ma Irving a me kekahi o ke kāne. hou aʻe ... ikaika… ʻano pilikino.

I loko o kahi pepa 2002 no The American Historical Review i kapa ʻia ʻo "" Buffalo Bill Meets Dracula: William F. Cody, Bram Stoker, a me nā palena palena o ka lāhui, " Ua kākau ka mea kākau moʻolelo ʻo Louis Warren:

ʻO kā Stoker mau wehewehe a Irving e pili pono ana i kāna hāʻawi ʻana i ka helu fiction i ʻōlelo ʻia e ka poʻe o ka wā e like me ka like. … Akā ʻo Bram Stoker i komo i loko ka makaʻu a me ka inaina a kāna haku hana i hoʻoulu ai i loko ona, a hoʻolilo iā lākou i kumu o kāna moʻolelo gothic.

I ka makahiki 1906, hoʻokahi makahiki ma hope o ka make ʻana o Irving, ua paʻi ʻo Stoker i kahi puke moʻomeheu ʻelua o ke kāne i poʻo inoa ʻia Nā Hoʻomanaʻo Pilikino o Henry Irving.

He mea nui e hoʻomaopopo, ʻoiai ʻo ia i hana ʻia e ka hale keaka no 27 mau makahiki, ua hoʻomaka wale ʻo ia e hana i nā memo e hoʻomaka ʻO Dracula ma kahi o 1890 paha. A ʻo ke kolu ia o ke kāne, a ʻo ka mea hope loa ua hoʻolalelale i ka mea kākau i ka waiho ʻana i ka peni i ka pepa e hoʻomaka ai ka moʻolelo epic.

Hōʻike C: Oscar Wilde

ʻO ka mea hoihoi loa, i ka makahiki like i hoʻomaka ai ʻo Stoker e hana no Irving ma ka Lyceum Theatre, ua male pū ʻo ia iā Florence Balcombe, kahi nani kaulana a me kahi wahine i pili mua ʻia. ʻO Oscar Wilde.

Ua ʻike ʻo Stoker iā Wilde mai ko lākou mau makahiki ma ke kulanui, a ua ʻōlelo aku hoʻi i kona hoa ʻĀlani no ke komo ʻana i ka hui Philosophical Society. ʻO ka ʻoiaʻiʻo, he pilina mau ko lāua mau kāne ʻelua, a ʻoi aku paha ka nui, no ʻelua paha mau makahiki, a ʻo ka manawa ma waena o lāua ua hoʻomaka wale e ulu. mahope iho o Ua hopu ʻia ʻo Wilde ma lalo o ke Kanawai Sodomy o ia lā.

I loko o kāna ʻatikala "'A Wilde Desire Took Me': The Homoerotic History of Dracula," Ua ʻōlelo ʻo Talia Schaffer i kēia:

ʻO ka holoi pono ʻana o Stoker i ka inoa o Wilde mai kāna mau pepa i paʻi ʻia (a hoʻopuka ʻole ʻia) hāʻawi i ka mea heluhelu i ka manaʻo he naʻaupō ʻole ʻo Stoker no ko Wilde ola. ʻAʻohe mea hou aʻe mai ka ʻoiaʻiʻo ... hiki ke heluhelu ʻia i ka holoi ʻana o Stoker me ka ʻole o ka pilikia; hoʻohana lākou i kahi code hiki ke ʻike ʻia i hoʻolālā ʻia paha e haki. I nā palapala e pili pono ana iā Wilde, ua kāpili ʻo Stoker i nā hakahaka kahi e kū ai ka inoa o Wilde me nā huaʻōlelo e like me "degeneracy," "reticence," "discretion," a me nā kuhikuhi i ka hopu ʻia e nā mākaʻi i nā mea kākau. ʻO Dracula ʻImi ʻo Stoker i ka makaʻu a me ka hopohopo ma ke ʻano he kāne moe kolohe pani ʻia i ka wā o kā Oscar Wilde hoʻokolokolo ʻana. - Schaffer, Talia "" Ua lawe iaʻu kahi makemake wilde ": ʻO ka Homoerotic History of Dracula." ELH 61, ʻaʻole. 2 (1994): 381-425. Loaʻa iā Iune 9, 2021.

I ka ʻoiaʻiʻo, aia i loko o hoʻokahi mahina o ko Wilde hopu ʻia ʻana ua hoʻomaka ʻo Stoker e kākau ʻO Dracula. He mea hoihoi mau kēia pilina no nā akeakamai he nui i ʻeli i ka moʻolelo o nā mea kākau ʻelua a me kā lākou mau hana i paʻi ʻia.

Ma ka ʻaoʻao hoʻokahi, aia iā ʻoe ʻo Wilde, nāna i kākau kahi puke e pili ana i kahi make ʻole i ola i kona ola ma kahi ākea, e hoʻohewa ʻia nā hopena, a komo i kēlā me kēia manaʻo hedonistic hiki iā ia. ʻO ia ka moa nani o ka hele wāwae nāna i huki i nā maka āpau iā ia a ʻapo.

Ma kahi ʻē aʻe, he Stoker kāu, nāna i kākau kahi puke e pili ana i kahi make ʻole. Eia nō naʻe, ua hoʻokau ʻia ka make ʻole o Stoker i loko o kahi ola pō, hūnā ʻia i nā aka, kahi parasite nāna i hānai i nā poʻe ʻē aʻe a make loa "make" ma muli o ia.

ʻAʻole ia he lele maoli o ka manaʻo i nā mea āpau e ʻike i kēia mau mea ola ʻelua ma ke ʻano he hiʻohiʻona o ka hanohano o kā lākou mea kākau. Ua hopu ʻia ʻo Wilde, hoʻopaʻa ʻia a hoʻopaʻa ʻia ma muli o kāna moekolohe. Ma kahi paʻa ʻo Stoker - inā ma ka hapa nui o ka male maʻemaʻe – ʻo ka mea e hoʻopaʻapaʻa e kipaku ʻia nā "sodomites" mai ke kahakai o Great Britain e like me ka nui o nā mea kālaiʻāina pani pani ʻia i kēia lā e kūʻē kūʻē ana i ke kaiāulu ʻo LBGTQ +, e paʻa wale me kā palule i lalo ke manaʻo lākou ʻaʻohe mea e nānā.

He mea hoʻomālamalama nō hoʻi e hoʻomaopopo ua make ʻo Wilde lāua ʻo Stoker ma muli o nā pilikia mai ka syphilis, kahi STD maʻamau ma Victorian Lākana i manaʻo e like me ka nui o ka nānā ʻana i kā lāua pilina me kekahi, akā ʻaʻole ia ma aneʻi a ma aneʻi.

I kona puke, Kekahi mea i loko o ke Koko: Ka Moʻolelo ʻole o Bram Stoker, ke kāne nāna Wrote Dracula, Hoʻopaʻapaʻa ʻo David J. Skal e hiki ke loaʻa ka specter o Wilde i nā ʻaoʻao āpau o ʻO Dracula, e like me ka specter o ko Wilde ʻano aliʻi wahine i kau ʻia ma luna o ko Stoker ola ponoʻī. ʻO Wilde ke aka o Stoker iā ʻoe iho. ʻO ia kāna doppelganger nāna i ʻaʻa e hana i ka mea a ke kāne e hiki ai ʻole a makemake ʻole ai.

ʻO Drramula ʻo Bram Stoker

ʻO Dracula Hoʻolaha Bram Stoker

ʻO kā Stoker paio kūloko ma kēlā me kēia ʻaoʻao o ʻO Dracula. ʻO kāna hoʻāʻo e launa i ka makemake a me ka ʻike a me nā manaʻo o ka maopopo ʻole a ʻae, i kekahi manawa ua hoʻokau ʻia ka hoʻowahāwahā ma luna ona a ua aʻo ʻia iā ia e kahi kaiāulu i hana hewa ʻole i ke kānāwai.

ʻAʻole pono kekahi e hāʻawi i kahi puke i kahi mele heluhelu e ʻike ai. Nui a hewahewa nā manawa i loko o ka moʻolelo kahi e lele ai ka moʻomeheu, nā mea ʻē aʻe, a me nā haʻi ʻōlelo mai ka ʻaoʻao.

E noʻonoʻo i ka teritoriality o ka vampire ma luna o Harker ke hoʻokokoke nā wahine wahine iā ia. Uhi ʻo ia i ke kanaka me kona kino ponoʻī, a koi iā ia. A i ʻole ka pilina koʻikoʻi a hoʻolohe ma waena o Dracula a me Renfield e ʻike nei i ka huhū hope loa me kona makemake e lawelawe?

ʻO ka hana maoli o ka hānai vampiric, ka huki ʻana i ke koko o ke ola ma o ka nahu ʻana i kahi o ke komo ʻana i ka moekolohe a hiki i nā kiʻi kiʻi kiʻi mua loa o ka puke, ua kauoha ʻia nā alakaʻi a me nā mea kākau e hiki i ka Count ke nahu wale i nā wahine e hemo i kekahi. manaʻo pili i ka moekolohe a i ʻole bisexuality.

I ka ʻoiaʻiʻo, i ka wā ʻo Hays Code, ʻo ke ala wale nō e hiki ai iā lākou ke pakele me ka hoʻokomo ʻana i nā mea o ke ʻano ma muli o ka ʻoiaʻiʻo ʻo Dracula ka mea kolohe a ua hoʻohoka ʻia e make. ʻOiai hiki ʻole ke hoʻopili ʻia a ʻōlelo ʻia, akā ʻaʻole hōʻike ʻia.

ʻO kēia, ʻoiaʻiʻo, ua alakaʻi i nā hanauna holoʻokoʻa o nā mea kiʻi ʻoniʻoni i heluhelu ʻole i nā kumuwaiwai kumu a ʻaʻole paha i ʻike i ka ʻano maoli o ke ʻano maoli o ʻO Dracula. ʻO lākou ka poʻe e hōʻike i nā ʻāpana manaʻo inā paʻi ʻia nā ʻatikala e like me kēia a decry i nā mea kākau, e ʻōlelo nei ua hana mākou i kēia ʻike, a ke hoʻāʻo wale nei mākou e hoʻokau i nā kumuhana LGBTQ + ma kahi o lākou e ʻole ai.

I ke kuhi o ka ʻoiaʻiʻo, ʻo ia ke kumu i haʻi ʻole ai wau i nā kiʻi ʻoniʻoni a hiki i kēia manawa. Hoʻokumu paʻa ʻia kēia kūkākūkā ʻana i loko o ka puke mua a i loko o ke kāne nāna ia i hana: he kāne aneane paha he bisexual a male paha, he mea kākau i hakakā me ka ʻike a me ka makemake nāna i hoʻokumu i kahi moʻolelo i make ʻole e like me kāna kumuhana, a ke kāne nona ke ola a pau i nā kāne ʻē aʻe i kona ola i lawe ʻia i ka mālamalama i nā makahiki he kanakolu i hala.

Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo

Kanalua ʻole ka poʻe i kū i ka heluhelu ʻana i kēia ʻatikala ma hope o ka paukū ʻelua a i ʻole ʻelua – ʻaʻole i hana kekahi ma waho o ke poʻo inoa. No ka poʻe i hoʻomanawanui, ʻōlelo mua wau i nā mea mahalo iā ʻoe. Nīnau aku wau iā ʻoe e noʻonoʻo i kāu mau hopena i kēia ʻike ma mua o kou pane ʻana.

E noʻonoʻo ma mua o kou ʻuā ʻana, "ʻO wai ka manaʻo?" ʻOiaʻiʻo, ʻaʻole ʻoe e mālama. ʻOiaʻiʻo, ʻaʻohe mea nui kēia ʻike iā ʻoe. Pehea kou wiwo ʻole e noʻonoʻo ʻo ia hoʻi he mea ʻole ka ʻike i nā mea ʻē aʻe āpau o ka honua.

ʻO ka ʻāpana o kahi kaiāulu i hoʻopilikia ʻia ʻo ia hoʻi ka luku ʻia a hōʻole ʻia ʻana o kā mākou mōʻaukala iā mākou. ʻO ka poʻe me ka ʻole o ka mōʻaukala paʻakikī ke ʻano o ka lāhui. Kāohi ʻia mākou e ka nele o ka ʻike e pili ana iā mākou iho, a ʻo ka poʻe ʻaʻole i ke kaiāulu hiki ke maʻalahi ke hoʻohālikelike he ʻano hou mākou i ke ʻano i hānau ʻia i nā makahiki 1970.

No laila, ʻaʻohe mea paha iā ʻoe, akā he mea nui ia i nā lālā o ke kaiāulu LGBTQ + ʻo lākou kekahi o nā mea hoʻoweliweli e ʻike ʻo kekahi o nā puke moʻolelo weliweli loa o nā manawa āpau i kākau ʻia e kahi kanaka nāna i kaʻana like i kā mākou hakakā a hakakā me kona ʻike ponoʻī i ke ʻano o ka hapa nui o mākou.

Loaʻa kēlā i ka pono i 2021, a ʻo ia ke kamaʻilio e hoʻomaka mau ai ka malama ʻo Horror Pride Month.

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